Coal explores Audre Lorde’s identities as a black woman, mother, wife, and lover of women. Several of her life issues are examined and refracted in the poems. Lorde’s lifelong journey toward claiming her West Indian, African American heritage is given voice in “Coal”; her motherhood is the subject of “Now That I Am Forever with Child”; and her women-centered existence is described in “On a Night of the Full Moon.”
As a black woman of West Indian heritage, Audre Lorde knew the struggles of black Americans to claim their place and voice in American society. Raised in Harlem during the 1930’s and 1940’s, Lorde became aware of racism at an early age. The poem “Coal” claims a positive, strong voice for Lorde—a voice deeply embedded in her black heritage.
In “Coal,” Lorde effectively transforms black speech into poetry: “I/ is the total black, being spoken/ from the earth’s inside.” Lorde defines poetic speech as a force that embraces blackness; then, she goes on to question how much a black woman can speak, and in what tone. Yet “Coal” defines Lorde as a black female poet who breaks the boundaries of silence and proclaims the sturdiness of power of her own words: “I am Black because I come from the earth’s inside/ now take my word for jewel in the open light.”
Fire imagery suffuses the book. The fire that marks the edges of many poems defines the anger and hostility engendered by a patriarchal and racist society. Lorde learns to empower herself by using the fire of anger and despair to create her own vision of spiritual and sexual identity. Embarked on her own journey toward truth, Lorde proclaims in the poem “Summer Oracle” that fire—which she equates with a warming agent in a country “barren of symbols of love”—can also be a cleansing agent. Fire burns away falsehoods and lets truth arise.
Lorde was widely praised by her contemporaries for her determination to see truth in everyday life. Coal could be called an uneven book, but her portraits of city life, love, anger, and sorrow make Coal a book of poetic transition from which Lorde would emerge into a life of more radical feminism and richer fulfillment.
...MBA-IB, Sec: A 1226112109 The World's Greatest Coal Arbitrage: China's Coal Import Behavior and Implications for the Global Coal Market Summary China is home to the world’s second largest proven coal reserves after the United States. In addition, prior to 2009, China was a net coal exporter. Coal is a cornerstone of the Chinese economy, representing 77 percent of China’s primary energy production and fueling almost 80 percent of its electricity. Moreover, China is the world’s top coal consumer, accounting for nearly half of global consumption in 2010. Over the past decade, China’s domestic coal output has more than doubled while its coal imports have increased by a factor of 60—the country’s dependence on other nations’ coal exports is growing. In 2009, the global coal market witnessed a dramatic realignment as China burst onto the scene, importing coal from as far away as Colombia and the United States. With 182 million tons (Mt) of coal sourced from overseas suppliers in 2011, China has overtaken Japan as the world’s top coal importer. Moreover, as the world’s top coal consumer, China’s imports could rise significantly again by 2015. China’s recent move from being a net coal exporter to a net coal importer portends significant changes on the global stage, especially in terms of climate change. Understanding China’s rising coal imports is crucial for managing their global impact. Introduction In 2009 the global coal market witnessed one of the most dramatic......
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...chicagotribune.com/2010-07-10/news/ct-met-coal-plant-online-sidebar-20100710_1_coal-plant-coal-fired-peabody-energy Page 7 http://www.chicagotribune.com/health/ct-met-dirty-power-plant-20100918,0,6593923.story As Europe Kicks Coal, Hungarian Town Suffers Miners in Hungary-what to do with cities,industries, states dependent on coal as Ohio,West Virginai, Utah,etc. As countries endeavor to reduce their fossil fuel emissions, many are trying to wean themselves from over-reliance on coal, the most highly emitting fuel. But coal is also the lifeblood of communities from Hungary and Germany to Kentucky and West Virginia, providing jobs, power and warmth. Figure 3: World wind resource map with installed capacity and production data for leading countries 3 180 0 6.9 19.3% 25 170 8 358 52.4 1.9% Denmark United States 12 210 6 300 8.8 n/a 3 241 836 7.1 1.3% China United Kingdom India 9 645 1 800 11.6 n/a Portugal 2 862 712 5.7 11.3% Cumulative installed GW in 2008 Additional capacity in 2008 TWh from wind energy in 2008 Share of wind in electricity production in 2008 Note: 80 m height and 15 km resolution. Source: Resource data from 3Tier; production and capacity data from IEA, IEA Wind Of the 7 technologies listed in the table for generating electricity, coal is second only to natural gas as the cheapest technology in market price. But when externalities are factored into the price, coal drops to a tie for last and wind......
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...Definition of coal: • caustobiolitică a sedimentary rock that comes from vegetal incarbonizarea. • the transformation is slow in the absence of atmospheric oxygen at elevated pressures and temperatures that depend on the depth at which the plant is accumulation. Classification of coal: Coal (7000-9000 kcal / kg): anthracite, coal Quality coal (2600-5000 kcal / kg) brown coal, lignite, peat Historically the use of coal Late nineteenth century - coal had a role in the development of industry (coal century). Widely used as fuel for steam engine - James Watt (creator of the first motor efficiency). The widespread use of coal: Getting coke resulting from the high temperature carbonization process, the distillation of coal in the absence of oxygen. The coke used as fuel in the steel (for obtaining one ton of steel requires 600 kg coke). The material or by-product in the manufacture of iron, calcium carbide and other industrial thereof. Fuel for power generation and chemicals. construction materials fuel for power stations and cement factories (3/4 of the demand for coal) Chemical Industry Getting paints, plastics, synthetic fibers, fertilizers, etc.. Pharmaceutical industry. Domestic heating fuel Synthetic Fuel Coal Liquefaction Evaluation of coal resources: 1913 - International Geological Congress in Turin (7100 billion tons) - North America......
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Analysis of "Power" by Audre Lorde
... warrior, poet," writer Audre Lorde dedicated both her life and her creative talent to confronting and addressing the injustices of racism, sexism, and homophobia. Her poetry, and "indeed all of her writing," according to contributor Joan Martin in Black Women Writers: A Critical Evaluation, "rings with passion, sincerity, perception, and depth of feeling." While driving, Lorde heard a radio broadcast announcing the acquittal of a white policeman who had shot and killed a black ten-year-old. She was so furious and sickened that she felt that the sky had turned red, and had to park the car before she drove it into a wall, according to a biography in Magill's Survey of American Literature. Then and there, she inscribed her feelings of outrage over the decision of the jury of eleven white men and one black woman. “Power” begins with an analogy between poetry and rhetoric. Webster defines poetry as literary work in which special intensity is given to the expression of feelings and ideas by the use of distinctive style and rhythm. Rhetoric is only the art of writing and speaking effectively while poetry is the art of speaking emotionally and freely. Lorde says that poetry is to killing yourself as rhetoric is to killing your children. The first lines of the poem is Lorde calling the readers to action, and telling them to put their children first. Feeling fury over the case against Thomas Shea, in the first stanza, in the first four lines of the poem, Lorde tells us that it......
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...Coal Types of coal Based on the carbon content, we differentiate between three main types, or ranks, of coal: lignite, bituminous and anthracite. It is largely the age of the coal and its depth in the earth’s crust that determines the carbon content. Coal with a high carbon content has a higher energy content and is “cleaner” in use, because the content of water and other substances is lower. Lignite Lignite, or brown coal as it is often called, is a young type of coal with a lower carbon content. Lignite is soft with a matt surface, and the coal deposits are usually near the surface. The energy content in lignite is lowest of the three types. Since lignite also contains more sulphur than older coal, it emits more pollution when burned. Bituminous Bituminous coal has a higher carbon content than lignite. It therefore contains less moisture than lignite, is harder and has a lustrous surface. Bituminous coal is divided into two categories, subbituminous and bituminous, with bituminous the most high-energy value category. Anthracite Anthracite is the “oldest” type of coal. It is hard, dark grey and with a high lustre. It has the highest carbon content of all the coal types. Anthracite requires a high temperature to ignite, and because of this people struggled to make use of it right up until the industrial age. Environmental Impacts Air Emissions When coal is burned, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury compounds are released. For that reason...
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Coal in India
...a look at Coal in India: current status and outlook The world cannot do without coal. This energy source covers more than one-quarter (28.4% in 2006) of all primary energy consumption and is used to generate nearly 40% of all electricity consumed worldwide. All scenarios and forecasts agree that coal consumption will be growing substantially, driven mostly by China and India. According to the IEA reference scenario (World Energy Outlook 2007), these two countries are expected to account for 82% of the increase in global coal demand by 2030. The outlook for India gives cause for concern: despite a strong domestic coal industry, it could eventually become a major importer. If so, what will the economic, industrial and environmental consequences be? India ranks Number Six in the world for the consumption of primary energy (432 Mtoe in 2006). Its appetite for energy is growing extremely rapidly: it averaged 6.7% a year between 2003 and 20061. Given the demographics, consumption per capita is one of the lowest in the world (512 kgep per capita in 2003), but this figure is steadily increasing. Fig. 1 - Trends in the consumption of commercial primary energy and coal in India 450 400 350 Millions of toe Consumption of primary energy Consumption of coal 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Consumption rising fast Coal continues to dominate India's energy portfolio Reporting a figure of 238 Mtoe for 2006, India was the Number Three coal consuming......
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...Reproduced with permission from Energy for Sustainable Development Articles Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction Eric D. Larson Princeton Environmental Institute, Princeton University Guyot Hall, Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544-1003, USA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Ren Tingjin Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China This paper reports detailed process designs and cost assessments for production of clean liquid fuels (methanol and dimethyl ether) by indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Gasification of coal produces a synthesis gas that can be converted to liquid fuel by synthesis over appropriate catalysts. Recycling of unconverted synthesis gas back to the synthesis reactor enables a larger fraction of the coal energy to be converted to liquid fuel. Passing synthesis gas once over the synthesis catalyst, with unconverted synthesis gas used to generate electricity in a gas turbine combined cycle, leads to less liquid fuel production, but provides for a significant second revenue stream from sale of electricity. Recently-developed liquid-phase synthesis reactors are especially attractive for ‘‘oncethrough’’ processing. Both ‘‘recycle’’ and ‘‘once-through’’ plant configurations are evaluated in this paper. Because synthesis catalysts are poisoned by sulfur, essentially all sulfur must be removed upstream. Upstream removal of CO2 from the synthesis gas is also desirable to maximize synthesis productivity, and it......
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...Advanced Clean Coal Technology DeVry University Technology Society and Culture Professor Paul Team D Table of Contents Renee M King I A brief description of the why the technology is needed …………….page 3 II The historical development and context of the technology …………..page 5 III The technology in its cultural context, media influence……………....page 9 IV Psychological considerations and sociological effects…………..….page 10 V Economic questions and considerations VI Implications for the Environment VI Political and legal influences IX Moral and Ethical Implications References Advanced Clean Coal Technology I A brief description of the why the technology is needed The most plentiful fuel in the fossil fuel family, coal has been used since the caveman days to heat their homes. In the 1700s, people found that it would heat cleaner and hotter than wood charcoal. The Industrial Revolutions overwhelming need for energy to run the new technologies providing the real opportunity for coal to dominant as a worldwide supplier of energy. (A brief history of coal use). As other sources of energy was discovered the use of coal diminished. However, 4 decades ago it became popular again as an energy source. The 1970’s brought about an oil crisis that showed industrialized countries that any disruption in the petroleum supply line would send a shockwave through energy production. (Morse, 2012). Even though coal......
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...oet, writer. Born Audre Geraldine Lorde on February 18, 1934, in New York, New York. Raised in New York, Audre Lorde grew up to a leading African American poet and essayist who gave voice to issues of race, gender, and sexuality. Her love of poetry started early, and she began writing as a teenager. Lorde attended Hunter College, working to support herself through school. After graduating in 1959, she went on to get a master’s degree in library science from Columbia University in 1961. For most of the 1960s, Audre Lorde worked as a librarian in Mount Vernon, New York, and in New York City. She married attorney Edwin Rollins in 1962, and the couple had two children—Elizabeth and Jonathan. The couple later divorced. Her life changed dramatically in 1968. Her first volume of poetry, First Cities, was published, and she left her job as a head librarian at Town School Library in New York City that year. Also in 1968, Lorde taught a poetry workshop at Tougaloo College in Mississippi, witnessing first-hand the deep racial tensions in the South. She would later teach at John Jay College and Hunter College in New York. Audre Lorde’s third volume of poetry, From a Land Where Other People Live (1973), earned a lot of praise and was nominated for a National Book Award. In this volume she explored issues of identity as well as concerns about global issues. Her next work, New York Head Shop and Museum (1975), was more overtly political than her earlier poem collections. With......
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...Cracking the Audre Lorde Code “I have come to believe over and over again that what is most important to me must be spoken, made verbal and shared, even at the risk of having it bruised or misunderstood” - Audre Lorde. Audre Lorde was a poet, lover, mother, warrior, and also fiercely passionate as her works spoke her deepest convictions. Audre Lorde’s life influenced her literature through her relationship with her mother, education, depression, and experiences through racial injustice to show that you can overcome anything by turning the negative into something positive. Audre Lorde’s relationship with her mother influenced her works of literature. In Hanging Fire, the mother is very distant from her daughter. “and momma’s in the bedroom with her door closed” (Lorde 719). The fourteen year old girl is seeking advice from her mother about her problems, but she isn’t becoming available for her to talk to her. Audre and her mother were in a similar relationship “Lorde’s mother in particular was emotionally distant….” (Pope 662). Audre wasn’t at all close to her mother because her mother was going through a struggle. Audre’s relationship with her mother and her education influenced her literary works. Audre’s experiences in her education influenced her works of literature. Lorde became an excellent student due to the absentness of her parents “Her academic success led to admission to Hunter High School….” (Pope 662). Hunter High School in the late 1940s was known...
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...Coal Coal, a product of decay from plants older than 350 million years, is an integral part of energy production in the United States. Coal provides 56.9% of electricity generation in the United States. With many different types of coal found in different states, the U.S. remains second to Russia in the number of estimated worldwide coal reserves. Between the years of 1885-1950, coal was the most important fuel. One half ton of coal produced as much energy as two tons of wood and at half the cost. Even today, there is, on a Btu basis, about one hundred times as much energy in the coal reserves of the United States as there is in either the oil or natural gas reserves. But coal is also a rather variable energy substance as the different ranks, or measure of degree of change from the peat stage, affects the heating value and sulfur content of the coal. From low rank to high rank, the different types of coal are ordered as follows: lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite. Low rank coal tends to have a smoky flame and easy ignition whereas high rank coal is known for its clean flame and difficult ignition. All of these types of coals can be found in three major United States regions known as The Appalachian Basin, The Illinois Basin, and the northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain region. To recover coal from these significantly large coal reserves, workers use a process called strip mining. By using this process, strip miners can......
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Coal by Audre Lorde Summary
...Coal by Audre Lorde Summary In her essay “Poetry Is Not a Luxury,” Lorde argues that poetry, as a revelatory distillation of experience, provides the illumination by which people scrutinize their lives and give substance to their unformed ideas. She also believes that each woman’s being holds a dark place where her true spirit grows hidden, forming a reservoir of creativity, power, and unexamined and unrecorded feeling. She has written that “the woman’s place of power within each of us is neither white nor surface; it is dark, it is ancient, and it is deep.” It is not surprising, then, that one of Lorde’s most frequently anthologized poems is “Coal,” with its final two lines independently declaring “I am Black because I come from the earth’s inside/ now take my word for jewel in the open light.” This self-assertion and her awareness of the power of words are not merely themes but a necessity and a way of living for Lorde. In form, “Coal” is a discussion of the many different forms that Lorde’s words can take, “colored/ by who pays what for speaking.” Lorde’s imagery is as skillful as ever, as in such phrases as “singing out within the passing crash of sun,” an “ill-pulled tooth with a ragged edge,” or “seeking like gypsies over my tongue/ to explode through my lips/ like young sparrows bursting from shell.” The words that she analyzes, however, are both servant and served. The phrasing she employs seems to imply that Lorde herself is trapped by her words: “Some words......
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Economy and Coal
... | |Natural Resources – How many and what types of | |Coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, | | | |natural resources are available? | |phosphates, rare earth elements, | | | | | |uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, | | | | | |mercury, nickel, potash, silver, | | | | | |tungsten, zinc, petroleum, | | | | | |natural gas, timber, arable land | | | | | |The US has the world's largest | | | | | |coal reserves with 491 billion | | | | | ......
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...about her mom, she is the person who the writer feels has betrayed her most, she has not been there or she has not listened. she was betrayed by her mother in her time of need. The title "hanging fire" refers to a firearm that has been pulled its trigger, but is delayed in igniting. In this case, it represents the girl being hesitant and insecure about her future, therefore is neglected in going on, as in the bullet that is supposed to fire in “hanging fire”. Right in the beginning, Lorde is straightforward to us in her subject with the sentence, "I am fourteen"(line 1), and we therefore becomes aware of the fact that this poem is about a teenager. Right away it is followed by a personification, "my skin has betrayed me"(line 2).Of course, this cannot be taken literally as it really means who she is in another’s eyes is not who she is deep down. In using the word “betrayed”, Lorde now creates a sense that this teenage girl has no control over her actions and is debilitated by outside powers Audre Lorde uses descriptive imagery to show how this girl is scared about growing up and becoming older...
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...iopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm EK RUKA HUA FAISLA: AN ANALYSIS Submitted to: Prof. Bhupen Srivastava Submitted by Nirankar Royal (11PGDMHR36) | PLOT SUMMARY Ek Ruka Hua Faisla is an adaptation of 12 Angry Men (1957), which was directed by Sidney Lumet and was nominated for 3 Oscars. It also was another 13 awards and was nominated for 6. The original movie deals with the deliberations in the first-degree murder trial of an 18-year-old Latino accused of stabbing his father to death. This is a movie about 19 year old boy who was a suspect for murder of his father. There was a committee of 12 people assigned to decide whether boy was culprit or not. The jury assembled in a room on a hot summer day. They had to reach a consensus, unanimously, regarding the boy’s fate – guilty or not guilty. When the movie begins it seems like the committee is already sure about the decision- guilty. However,......
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