The quickest and easiest way to reference your academic work is to:
- record the necessary information at the time of using it
- be consistent
Referencing is a very important consideration when submitting a piece of academic work and by following these guidelines you will ensure that you will meet the requirements set out by your tutor.
You need to reference:
- to demonstrate that you have undertaken research for your academic work
- to avoid accusations of plagiarism
- to acknowledge the work of other authors, which can be found in books, journal articles, websites etc.
There are many systems of referencing available; this guide will focus on the American Psychological Association (APA) system which is used for both the School of Psychology and the School of Sport and Exercise Science at the University of Lincoln.
This guide provides examples of different information sources: how to cite them within your text and how to include them in your reference list. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing). The APA Manual also provides information about paper formatting and writing style whereas this guide is primarily focused on the referencing aspect.
The APA website also contains information and tips on using the APA style at http://www.apastyle.org.
Other referencing styles
If you are doing a joint degree with another discipline, you may be required to use a different referencing system such as Harvard for some assignments. If so, please refer to the University of Lincoln Harvard guide.
There are two parts to APA referencing:
- In-text citation
- Reference list.
Double-space your entire paper, including the reference list and any block quotations (unless advised differently by your tutor/lecturer).
- OWL PurduePurdue University have an Online Writing Lab (OWL) which advises on general format for APA style including many examples.
Reference List: Author/Authors
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).
Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck
Last Edited: 2018-02-21 02:53:07
The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.).
Last name first, followed by author initials.
Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.
List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and."
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.
Three to Seven Authors
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.
Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.
More Than Seven Authors
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.
Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.
Organization as Author
American Psychological Association. (2003).
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster's, 1993).
Two or More Works by the Same Author
Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first).
Berndt, T. J. (1981).
Berndt, T. J. (1999).
When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.
Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28.
Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329.
References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.
Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., & Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6, 629-654.
Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43.
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year
If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g.: "Berdnt (1981a) makes similar claims..."
Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17, 408-416.
Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643.
Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords
Cite the publishing information about a book as usual, but cite Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword (whatever title is applicable) as the chapter of the book.
Funk, R., & Kolln, M. (1998). Introduction. In E. W. Ludlow (Ed.), Understanding English grammar (pp. 1-2). Needham, MA: Allyn and Bacon.